AAC Abbreviation for Advanced Audio Codec. A compression and decompression algorithm and file format for audio data.

AAF Abbreviation for Advanced Authoring Format. A cross-platform, project exchange file format you can use to import multiple audio tracks, inclusive of references to tracks, time positions, and volume automation.

accelerando A gradual increase in tempo. See tempo.

AD converter (ADC) Short for analog-to-digital converter. A device that converts an analog signal to a digital signal.

ADAT Abbreviation for Alesis Digital Audio Tape. The ADAT is an eight-track digital multitrack cassette recorder that uses an S-VHS video tape to record audio at 16- or 20-bit depth.

ADAT optical An optical interface for parallel transmission of eight audio channels via fiber optic cable. ADAT optical is a well-established standard for digital multichannel interfaces.

AES/EBU Abbreviation for Audio Engineering Society/European Broadcasting Union. This association has a standard transmission format for professional stereo digital audio signals also called AES/EBU. The format is similar to S/P-DIF, but uses balanced line drivers at a higher voltage. Depending on the type of devices involved, AES/EBU and S/P-DIF coaxial interfaces can communicate directly. See also S/P-DIF.

aftertouch A MIDI data type generated by pressure on keys after they have been struck. There are two types — channel aftertouch, the value of which is measured by a full length keyboard sensor and that affects all played notes, and polyphonic aftertouch, which is individually measured and transmitted for each key. Aftertouch is also known as key pressure or pressure sensitivity.

AIFF Abbreviation for Audio Interchange File Format. A cross-platform file format supported by a large number of digital audio and video editing applications. AIFF audio can use a variety of bit depths, most commonly 16- and 24-bit.

ALAC Abbreviation for Apple Lossless Audio Codec. An encoding/decoding algorithm that delivers lossless audio compression.

alias A pointer to a MIDI region in the Tracks area. An alias doesn’t contain any MIDI data, but points to the data of the original MIDI region. You can create an alias by Option-Shift-dragging a MIDI region to a new location. An alias can’t be edited directly; however, any change to the original region also affects the alias.

All Files Browser One of the browsers in the Browsers area used for file management and data import tasks. See also Browsers.

allpass filter A filter that allows all frequencies to pass, providing only phase shift or phase delay without appreciably changing the amplitude characteristic.

amplifier A device that increases the level of a signal. Sometimes called amp for short.

alternative A different version of a project, with a unique name and different settings. Alternatives are saved as part of the project, and share the same assets. Alternatives for the current project appear in the File > Alternatives submenu.

amplitude A term used to describe the amount of a signal. If you have an audio signal, amplitude refers to the volume of the sound, measured in decibels (dB).

amplitude peak The loudest point of an audio signal.

analog signal Refers to audio data that consists of an endlessly varying voltage level. Analog signals must be digitized, or captured, for use in Logic Pro. Compare digital.

anchor point The start point of the audio file that an audio region is based on. See also Audio File Editor.

Apple Loops Prerecorded audio or MIDI regions commonly used for recurring rhythmic musical elements or elements suitable for repetition. Apple Loops contain tags so you can quickly locate files by instrument, genre, or mood in the Loop Browser. Audio Apple Loops also contain transients that are used by Logic Pro for time-stretching and pitch-shifting tasks.

ASCII Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard computer character set, allowing computers to deal with text characters. When you type ASCII characters on the keyboard, the computer interprets them as binary so they can be read, manipulated, stored, and retrieved. See also scan code.

attack The start phase of a sonic event. Also part of an envelope. See also envelope.

attenuate The act of lowering the level of an audio signal. See also boosting and cutting.

audio channel strip A channel strip in the Mixer, used as a target for audio tracks in the Tracks area. All data on the audio track is automatically routed to the audio channel strip that was assigned in the Tracks area.

audio file Any digital recording of sound, stored on your hard disk. You can store audio files in the AIFF, WAV, Sound Designer II (SDII), and CAF formats in Logic Pro. All recorded and bounced WAV files are in Broadcast Wave format.

Audio File Editor The area in Logic Prothat allows audio files to be destructively edited and processed in a number of ways. The Audio File Editor allows editing of individual samples within an audio file, and also provides access to a number of special sample processing tools.

audio interface The device used to get sound into and out of your computer. An audio interface converts analog signals (from microphones or musical instruments, for example) into digital audio data that can be processed by your computer, and, in the other direction, converts digital audio data from your computer into analog signals that speakers can broadcast.

Audio MIDI Setup (AMS) A utility used to configure the audio and MIDI input and output devices connected to your computer. Logic Pro uses the settings defined in the AMS utility, which can be found in the Applications/Utilities folder.

audio region A segment of an audio file that can be placed on audio tracks in the Tracks area. Audio regions appear as colored rectangles in the Tracks area, and are aliases (or pointers) to portions of audio files. They can be as short as a single sample, or as long as the underlying audio file. Logic Pro allows you to edit audio regions without altering the original audio file. See also region and MIDI region.

audio track A track in the Tracks area that is used for playback, recording, and editing of audio regions. It is routed to an audio channel strip in the Mixer.

Audio Track Editor An editor in Logic Pro that shows a close-up view of part of an audio track, displaying the audio waveform of the regions on the track. You can move and trim audio regions, split and join them, and edit them in other ways. You can also quantize and edit the pitch of audio material in the Audio Track Editor using Flex Pitch. See also Flex editing.

Audio Units (AU) The standard Mac OS X format for real-time plug-ins. Audio Units plug-ins can be used for audio effects, software instruments, and generators. The AU format is incorporated into the operating system, and installed AU plug-ins can be accessed by all applicable programs. Logic Pro supports all AU format plug-ins.

Auto Track Zoom A function in the Tracks area View menu that automatically enlarges the currently selected track.

automation Refers to the ability to record, edit, and play back the movements of all knobs, controls, and buttons, including volume faders, pan, EQ, and aux send controls, plus most effect and instrument plug-in parameters.

automation point The circular indicator on an automation curve that shows the value of the automation parameter at a particular point in time. You add and edit automation points to control automation for the parameter.

Automation Curve tool A tool used to bend the line between two automation points, creating a nonlinear transition between the points.

Automation Select tool A tool used to select automation data and create automation points at region borders.

Autopunch button A button (with up and down arrows) in the control bar, used to activate the Autopunch function. See also Autopunch function.

Autopunch function A function that allows you to start and stop recording at predefined positions. Autopunch mode is most commonly used to re-record a section of an otherwise successful recording. The advantage is that you can concentrate on playing, rather than the mechanics of starting and stopping recording. See also Autopunch button.

aux channel strip A channel strip found in the Mixer that can be used as a send/return (bus) and subgroup control.

backup A saved version of the current project. Backups for the current alternative are listed in descending order from newest to oldest in the Project > Revert to submenu,

Balance control A rotary knob above the Volume fader of stereo channel strips. It controls the relative level of the left and right signals at their outputs.

band rejection filter A filter that cuts the frequency band centered around the cutoff frequency, while allowing the frequencies that lie further away on either side to pass. Frequencies close to the cutoff frequency are attenuated, while the lows and highs remain unchanged. See also filter.

bandpass filter A filter that allows only the frequency band centered around the cutoff frequency to pass, while frequencies that lie further away are cut. Frequencies close to the cutoff frequency are emphasized, while the lows and highs are attenuated, resulting in a sound containing mostly mid-range frequencies. See alsofilter.

bar In musical notation, a measure that contains a specified number of beats, defined by the project time signature. See also time signature.

bass (1) A musical instrument. (2) Low-frequency sounds or components within a sound. See also frequency.

beat A musical time interval, commonly a quarter note, that marks the basic pulse of a piece of music.

Beat Mapping track A Global track used to analyze audio or MIDI regions, and create tempo events based on note or transient events in these regions, allowing you to more easily synchronize recordings made without a metronome click with other material in a project.

binaural hearing Refers to the way human beings process audio positioning information, allowing the direction of a signal source to be recognized (in front, behind, above, below, and to the left or right of the listening position).

binaural panning A process that emulates binaural hearing.

bit depth The number of bits used by a digital recording or digital device. The number of bits in each sample determines the (theoretical) maximum dynamic range of the audio data, regardless of sample rate.

bit rate When talking about MP3 files, refers to the transfer bit rate at which the files are encoded. Conversationally, the term is more often used to describe the relative quality of the file, with lower bit rates resulting in less defined audio.

bit resolution An alternative term for bit depth. See bit depth and sample rate.

blue noise Refers to highpass-filtered white noise, which sounds like tape hiss.

boosting The act of raising an audio level. See also cutting.

bounce To process MIDI or audio regions with any applied effects, such as delay or compression, combining (rendering) them into an audio file. In Logic Pro, you can choose between real-time and offline bouncing. Offline bouncing is faster, but doesn’t allow you to apply live automation or record real-time audio input. You can also bounce to several files when performing a Surround bounce. See also surround.

Bounce button The button you click to bounce the output of any output channel to an audio file. See also bounce.

bpm Abbreviation for beats per minute. A measure of the tempo of a musical piece. For example, 120 bpm means that in one minute, there will be 120 musical beats (quarter notes). See also tempo.

Broadcast Wave See Wav and Wave.

BrowsersAn area that appears to the right of the Tracks area when you click the Browsers button in the control bar. The Browsers area contains the Project Audio Browser, Media Browser, and All Files Browser, providing access to all media types supported by Logic Pro.

bus A type of signal routing that sends audio to aux channel strips for processing or submixing tasks.

bus channel strip A type of channel strip in the Environment Mixer layer included for backward compatibility with projects created in older versions of Logic. Aux channel strips perform the functions that the bus channel strips performed in earlier versions of the application.

bypass To deactivate a plug-in. Bypassed plug-ins do not drain system resources. In Logic Pro, you can bypass a plug-in by either clicking a plug-in’s Bypass button in the channel strip or the Bypass button in the plug-in window.

cable In Logic Pro, the term is used to describe the virtual cables that represent a MIDI connection between Environment objects.

CAF Abbreviation for Core Audio Format. This file format can be used as a container for compressed or uncompressed audio files of (almost) any size, sample rate, or bit depth. The CAF file format can handle audio recordings of around three hours in length (at a 44.1 kHz sample rate—shorter at higher sample rates).

Camera tool A tool in the Score Editor used to select and export sections of the score as an image or PDF file.

carrier In FM synthesis, the carrier is the equivalent of an analog synthesizer oscillator that is producing a sine wave. The carrier frequency is modulated by the modulator.

Catch button The button that enables horizontal scrolling during playback, ensuring that the area of the project near the current playhead position is always visible. The Catch button is located in the Tracks area and some editors.

CD Audio A standard for stereo music CDs: 44.1 kHz sampling rate and 16-bit depth.

cent A tuning division of a semitone. There are 100 cents in a semitone. Many Logic Pro software instruments contain a Fine parameter that allows sounds to be tuned in cent steps.

channel strip A virtual representation of a channel strip on a mixing console. Each channel strip contains a number of similar controls, including a Mute button, Volume fader, Pan/Balance knob, Input slot, Output slot, Send slots, Effect slots, and Format button. The channel strips shown in the inspector and in the Mixer are used to process audio or MIDI information that is routed from tracks.

channel strip setting Refers to the routing of a channel strip, including all inserted effects or instruments (plus their presets). Logic Pro allows these settings to be saved and recalled, which simplifies the task of re-creating complex serial effect routings between channels or projects.

chorus effect An effect achieved by layering two identical sounds with a delay, and slightly modulating the delay time of one, or both, of the sounds. This makes the audio signal routed through the effect sound thicker and richer, giving the illusion of multiple voices.

click The sound a metronome makes, also sometimes used to indicate the metronome.

clipping In digital recordings, the result of feeding too much signal through a channel strip, thereby exceeding the limit of what can be accurately reproduced and producing a distorted sound. Logic Pro audio channel strips feature a clip indicator, which indicates signal level peaks above 0 dB.

clock An electrical synchronization impulse, transmitted every 1/96 note. A clock was used in older drum machines before the advent of MIDI. MIDI Clock is a modern implementation of simple clock signals. It runs at 24 pulses per quarter note (ppqn), or 96 pulses per note.

cloned audio region A pointer to the original audio region. When you adjust the start or end point of a cloned region, all other regions cloned from the same original region are adjusted in the same way.

comb filter effect The general term for a short delay of feedback that emphasizes specific harmonics in a signal. The name is derived from the appearance of the frequency spectrum graphic, which resembles the teeth of a comb.

comping A process where multiple recording takes are combined into a single composite take. See also take.

compressor An effect that restricts the dynamic range of an audio signal. Compare expander.

Content Link mode A mode useful for situations where multiple MIDI regions are horizontally aligned along a single track, and you're viewing the MIDI region contents in the Piano Roll Editor, for example. In this scenario, the Piano Roll Editor will only show the contents of the selected MIDI region. If you want to view the contents of each MIDI region (selected or not) in the Piano Roll Editor as the project plays, you need to activate Content Catch mode. See also Link button.

control bar A collection of buttons located at the top of the main window, giving you easy access to some of the most frequently used inspectors, editors, and other areas of Logic Pro. You can customize the control bar to meet your individual needs.

controller A MIDI data type that controls a particular parameter, such as volume or pan, or sustain. The type of command is encoded in the first data byte, while the value being sent or received is encoded in the second data byte.

control surface A hardware device that communicates with Logic Pro via MIDI (or other communication protocol). It can be used to write automation data and control parameters, such as mixing levels and panning, and effects and instruments, as well as transport and navigation functions, among others.

Controls view A nongraphical alternative to the Editor view of plug-in parameters. All Logic Pro plug-ins (and Audio Units) offer a Controls view, which you can open by choosing Controls in the View pop-up menu at the top of the plug-in window. Controls view allows access to additional parameters and often requires less screen space. Compare Editor view.

Core Audio A standardized audio driver system for all Macintosh computers running Mac OS X. Core Audio is an integral part of Mac OS X, allowing access to all audio interfaces that are Core Audio compatible. Logic Pro is compatible with any audio hardware that is Core Audio compliant.

Core MIDI A standardized MIDI driver system for all Macintosh computers running Mac OS X. Core MIDI is an integral part of Mac OS X, allowing the connection of all MIDI devices that are Core MIDI compatible. Logic Pro is compatible with any MIDI hardware that is Core MIDI compliant.

count-in Several metronome beats sounded prior to the start of a recording (or playback), typically for one bar. The control bar features a Count-In button to control the count-in.

cutoff frequency The frequency at which the audio signal passing through a low or highpass filter is attenuated (typically by 3 dB).

cutting The process of reducing a level or frequency when using EQ or other filters. The term is also used to describe dividing and removing sections of files, regions, and other items. See also boosting and attenuate.

cycle area In Logic Pro, an area used to repeatedly play a particular part of a project for composing, practicing, recording multiple takes, and other purposes. When Cycle mode is on, the cycle area is displayed as a yellow strip in the upper part of the ruler (or in the center, when the secondary ruler is visible).

DA converter (DAC) Short for digital/analog converter. A device that changes an analog signal into a digital signal.

data bytes Elements that define the content of a MIDI message. The first data byte represents the note, or controller number, and the second represents the velocity, or controller value.

DAW Acronym for digital audio workstation. A computer system used for recording, arranging, mixing, and producing audio files.

dB Abbreviation for decibel. A unit of measurement that describes the relationships between voltage levels, intensity, or power, particularly in audio systems.

DC offset An error that can result in direct current (DC) being layered over the audio signal, producing a vertical shift in the waveform position shown in the Audio File Editor.

decay An envelope parameter that determines the time it takes for a signal to fall from the maximum attack level to the sustain level. See also envelope.

deesser A signal processor that removes hissing or sibilance in audio signals.

default The preset value of a parameter.

delay (1) In the main window, a region parameter that letes you move a selected region ahead or behind the beat by a given number of milliseconds. (2) An effect that delays the incoming audio signal, typically resulting in a sense of audio space in which the signal is taking place. (3) In the Environment, an object that can create a series of repeats.

destructive A type of audio processing in which the actual data of an audio file is changed, as opposed to just editing peripheral or playback parameters. Edits in the Audio File Editor are destructive, while those in the Audio Track Editor are nondestructive. See also Audio File Editor.

DFS Abbreviation for Digital Full Scale. Sometimes expressed as 0 dB DFS. This value—0 dB, as shown on the Logic Pro channel strip level meters—is the maximum theoretical level that a digital signal can reach before clipping and other types of distortion may be introduced.

digital A description of data that is stored or transmitted as a sequence of ones and zeros. Most commonly, digital data refers to binary data represented by electronic or electromagnetic signals. All files used in Logic Pro are digital. Compare analog.

Display Level button A button (located in the upper-left corner of many windows) that takes you to the next higher display level. For example, if you’re viewing events of a MIDI region inside a folder and you click the Display Level button, you’ll move to the MIDI region in the parent folder. A second click switches the display to the folder itself.

distortion The effect that occurs when the limit of what can be accurately reproduced in a digital signal is surpassed, resulting in a sharp, crackling sound.

division value An adjustable value (shown in notes) for the grid used in displays and operations. The division (marked div) is the third number displayed in the control bar’s Position display.

Drag pop-up menu A pop-up menu found in the menu bars of linear editing windows. It determines the behavior of regions or events when dragged to an overlapping position.

driver A software program that enables various pieces of hardware and software to be recognized by computer applications. If the proper driver is not correctly installed for your audio hardware, your computer may not recognize or work properly with it. See also Devices pane.

Drummer A feature in Logic Pro that allows you to add a virtual drummer to your project, using a Drummer track. You edit the drummer’s performance in the Drummer Editor.

Drummer Editor The editor you use to modify a virtual drummer’s playing style by choosing presets and adjusting individual settings, including kit piece pattern variations and fill settings.

Drummer region A realistic drum performance you can edit using various settings in the Drummer Editor.

Drummer track A track in the Tracks area that is used for the playback and editing of Drummer regions. You can only have one Drummer track per project.

DSP (digital signal processing) In Logic Pro, the mathematical processing of digital information to modify a signal. For example, the Effect slot on channel strips assigns DSP effects—such as dynamic compression and delay—to a channel signal. Even simple operations such as changing volume and pan are DSP calculations.

dynamic range The difference in level between the loudest and softest signals that an audio system (or device) can reproduce. Technically, dynamic range is the difference between the highest signal peak that can be reproduced and the amplitude of the highest spectral component of the noise floor. It is measured in decibels. See also dB.

dynamics Refers to changes in volume, or other aspects of a piece of music, over time.

editor In Logic Pro, an area or window for editing MIDI or audio data. Logic Pro includes the Piano Roll, Step, Event List, and Score Editors for MIDI event data, the Audio Track and Audio File Editors for audio data, and the Drummer Editor for Drummer regions. The Event List can also be used for region editing and positioning.

Editor view The default, graphical view of plug-in parameters. If Controls view is visible, you can open Editor view from the View pop-up menu at the top of the plug-in window. Compare Controls view.

effect A type of software algorithm that alters the sound of an audio signal in a specific way. Logic Pro includes a complete set of EQ, dynamics, time-based, modulation, and distortion effects in the Logic Pro native and Audio Units plug-in formats.

Effect slot A panel on Logic Pro channel strips where you can insert an audio or MIDI effect plug-in.

envelope An element that graphically represents the variation in amplitude (or, sometimes, spectral content) of a sound over time. An envelope, used as a controlling device, determines how a sound starts, continues, and ends. Synthesizer envelopes usually consist of attack, decay, sustain, and release phases (abbreviated as ADSR).

Environment A workspace in Logic Pro that graphically reflects the relationships between hardware devices outside your computer and virtual devices within your computer. Beyond basic input and output handling, the Environment can be used to process MIDI data in real time, and can even be used to create processing machines, such as virtual rhythm generators and step sequencers or complex synthesizer editors.

Environment layer A page in the Environment used to organize objects. Objects of the same type (MIDI objects, for example) are generally placed on the same layer, making usage easier.

Environment Mixer layer An Environment layer that shows all channel strips in a project (except MIDI channel strips). For most purposes, you can use the Logic Pro Mixer to mix your project.

EQ Short for equalizer. Equalizers are used to boost or cut frequencies in an audio signal. Several EQ types are available in Logic Pro.

equalizationThe process of adjusting the relative volume (level) of different frequency bands, using an equalizer. See EQ.

Eraser tool A tool used for deleting items. You click a selected item or items with the Eraser tool to delete them.

event An individual MIDI command, such as a note on command. Continuous controller movements (such as are made with a modulation wheel) produce a quick succession of individual events—each with an absolute value.

event definition Parameters used to define the event type displayed in the lanes of the Step Editor. See also Lane Set.

Event List A list that shows all events or regions in a project. The Event List allows you to directly manipulate events and regions in a precise, numerical way. It also allows you to add different types of events.

expander An effect that increases the dynamic range of an audio signal. Compare compressor.

export To create a version of a file, such as a Logic Pro project, in a different format that can be distributed and used by other applications.

Fade tool A tool used to create and edit fades, or to change the shape of fade curves.

Filter button A button in the Event List and Mixer that you can use to hide or show specific event types or channel strip types.

filter Filters are effects used to increase (boost) or attenuate (cut) a specific frequency or frequency range in an audio signal. For example, a lowpass filter allows frequencies below the cutoff frequency to pass unaltered, while those above are attenuated. See alsocutoff frequency.

filter slope The steepness, or amount, of filter attenuation (level reduction), typically measured per octave. For example, a filter slope of 12 dB per octave would sound much more dramatic than a filter slope of 6 dB per octave.

Finger tool A tool in the Piano Roll Editor used to edit the length of events.

FireWire Apple trademarked name for the IEEE 1394 standard. A fast and versatile serial interface, often used to connect audio interfaces and other audio devices to computers. There are two versions of FireWire: FireWire 400 and FireWire 800, each of which uses a different connector type. FireWire signals can be transmitted using a Thunderbolt adapter.

flanger An effect similar to the chorus effect, where a slightly delayed signal (which is shorter than that of the chorus) is fed back into the delay line input. Flanging makes a sound thicker, and slightly out of phase.

Flex button A button in the Tracks area used to show or hide flex editing controls on audio track headers. A similar button is also available on audio track headers and in the Audio Track Editor, to turn flex on or off for the track.

Flex checkbox A checkbox in the Region inspector used to turn flex on or off for selected audio regions.

Flex editing A process of editing the timing and pitch of notes, beats, and other events in audio regions. See also Flex Time and Flex Pitch.

flex marker A marker that allows you to alter the timing of audio material.

flex mode A track-based setting that determines how the timing or pitch of your audio is altered.

Flex PitchA track-based setting that determines how the pitch of your audio material will be altered.

Flex TimeA setting that simplifies the process of editing the timing of notes, beats, and other events in audio regions. Flex Time is similar to what is often referred to as elastic audio in other applications. You can compress or expand the time between specified events in an audio region without the need for trimming, moving, nudging, or crossfading.

Flex tool A tool that gives you quick access to the basic flex editing functionality, without having to turn on Flex view in the Tracks area. See alsoFlex view.

Flex view A Tracks area view that allows you to edit the timing and pitch of audio material.

folder In Logic Pro, a container for regions in the Tracks area. A folder can contain other folders or regions, much like a folder in the Finder can contain other folders or files. You can imagine a folder as a project within a project. The inside of a folder looks just like the Tracks area.

folder stack A type of Track Stack that lets you combine multiple tracks and control them as one unit, without changing the audio routing of the individual subtracks. When you create a folder stack, the channel strip assigned to the main track is called the stack master. Using the main track or the stack master channel strip, you can mute, solo, and adjust the volume level for the folder stack. See also Track Stack.

Format button A button on audio channel strips from which you choose the input format of the channel strip. Click-hold this button to access the Format pop-up menu.

frame A unit of time. A second in the SMPTE standard is divided into frames that correspond to a single still image in a video file or on video tape.

Freeze function A process that performs individual offline bounces for each frozen track, saving almost 100 percent of the processing power used for software instruments and effect plug-ins. All track plug-ins (including software instrument plug-ins, if applicable, along with all related automation data) are rendered into a freeze file.

frequency A measure of the vibration of a sound signal over time, expressed in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz). Frequency corresponds to what users hear as pitch (the highness or lowness of a musical tone).

global tracks Tracks you can use to view, create, and edit markers, tempo events, and key changes, as well as perform beat mapping and other operations. Global tracks are available at the top of all linear editing windows.

Glue tool A tool used to merge regions or events by selecting and clicking them.

GM Abbreviation for General MIDI. A standard for MIDI sound modules specifying a uniform set of instrument sounds, a standard key assignment for drum and percussion sounds, 16-part multitimbral performance and at least 24-voice polyphony. A musical sequence generated by a GM instrument should play correctly on any other GM synthesizer or sound module.

grid An element of the Tracks area and some editors represented by vertical lines that indicate the positions of measures, beats, and sub-beats.

Groups inspector A Logic Pro inspector used to define which controls can be edited for an entire channel strip group at the same time, including automation, volume, pan, and sends.

GS An extended General M standard, developed by Roland Inc.

Hand tool A tool in the Audio File Editor used for selection tasks.

headroom A specified range (safety margin, measured in decibels) between the actual audio level and the maximum permitted level (0 dBfs) that allows for unexpected signal peaks. In the Score Editor, headroom is the margin of white space above the top staff.

Hermode Tuning A process that automatically controls the tuning of electronic keyboard instruments, or the Logic Pro software instruments, during a musical performance. Hermode Tuning retains the pitch relationship between keys and notes, while correcting the individual notes of electronic instruments, ensuring a high degree of tonal purity.

high cut filter A type of filter that is essentially a lowpass filter with no slope or resonance controls. As the name suggests, it attenuates frequencies above the cutoff frequency.

highpass filter A filter that allows frequencies above the cutoff frequency to pass. A highpass filter possessing no slope or resonance controls is known as a low cut filter.

import, importing The process of bringing files of various types (formats) into a Logic Pro project. Imported files can be created in another application, captured from another device, or taken from another Logic Pro project.

input channel strip A type of channel strip in the Environment Mixer layer included for backward compatibility with projects created in older versions of Logic. An input channel strip represents the physical inputs of your audio interface and directs input from your audio interface into Logic Pro. In general, you won’t need to access this channel strip type in Logic Pro.

input monitoring A function that allows you to hear incoming audio when audio tracks are playing, record-enabled, or recording. Click the Input Monitoring button on an audio track to turn input monitoring on or off for the track.

inspector An area on the left side of the main window that contains the inspectors and channel strips for the selected track. The inspector updates to reflect the parameters relevant to the area with key focus (such as the selected track, regions, events, or objects).

instrument object An object in the Logic Pro Environment designed to communicate with a single-channel MIDI device. An instrument object represents a physical or virtual device that handles MIDI information. See also multi-instrument object.

interleaved audio fileLogic Pro typically handles multichannel (stereo or surround) audio files as interleaved. Edits to interleaved files affect both (for stereo, or all for surround) channels equally. See alsosplit channel audio files.

key The scale used in a piece of music, centered around a specific pitch. The specified pitch is called the root of the key. A key can also refer to a black or white key on a musical (MIDI) keyboard.

key command A function that you can execute by pressing a specific key (or key combination) on your computer keyboard or MIDI controller.

Key Commands window A window used for assigning key commands to computer keys or to MIDI messages.

key focus In Logic Pro, the selected, active window is said to have key focus. Many key commands will only function when a window has key focus. The inspector also updates to reflect the parameters of a window with key focus.

key signature Refers to musical notation that indicates the key (and scale) of the piece, or the current section. In the Score Editor, the key signature appears at the start (the left edge) of each staff. See also key.

Lane Each MIDI event type (a note or MIDI controller) is arranged from top to bottom in horizontal lanes similar to tracks in the Tracks area. You can configure the type of event shown and controlled on each lane by setting parameters in the Lane inspector.

Lane inspector A Logic Pro inspector used to alter the settings of the selected lane.

Lane Set A term for all simultaneously displayed event definitions in the Step Editor. See also event definition.

latency A short delay between playing a note on your keyboard and hearing the sound. A variety of factors contribute to latency, including the audio interface in use and audio and MIDI drivers. You can control the amount of latency (to an extent) using the I/O buffer size, which is set in the Devices preferences.

Layout tool A tool in the Score Editor used to graphically move events or global text objects.

legato Method of musical performance that smoothly connects one note to the next.

level meter An indicator that displays audio input or output levels to or from your computer. Each channel strip in the Mixer (except the master channel strip) includes a level meter. You use the level meters when recording, arranging, and editing audio files, and when creating a mix.

LFO Abbreviation for Low Frequency Oscillator. An oscillator that delivers modulation signals below the audible frequency range—in the bandwidth that falls between 0.1 Hz and 20 Hz, and sometimes as high as 50 Hz or 400 Hz.

Library The workspace to the left of the Tracks area where you access patches and settings files for plug-in presets and channel strips.

Line tool A tool in the Step Editor used to edit multiple steps by clicking a start and end position on the lane, which changes the values of the steps between the start and end.

Linear view A view in the Score Editor that displays a single track in a continuous, scrolling horizontal view.

Link button A button in the Piano Roll Editor and Score Editor with a chain link icon that controls how content is linked in related workspaces. You can show all content or the content of the selected region only. Or you can unlink related workspaces from one another.

Lists area A workspace to the right of the Tracks area with four independent tabs that show vertical lists for the following data types: events, regions, markers, tempo changes, and time/key signatures.

local menu bar Refers to a menu bar in one of the working areas of Logic Pro that contains functions that are only relevant to that area.

Local Off mode An operating mode on a MIDI keyboard where the keyboard does not directly play its own integrated sound generator. This is useful when using the device as a master keyboard for Logic Pro.

locators Left and right indicators that define the cycle area, which is used for cycle or skip playback and cycle recording operations. The locators are also used to define the editing area for certain functions. When the LCD is set to Custom, the locators are displayed to the right of the position indicators in the LCD. The number on top is the left locator; the number below is the right locator.

Logic Pro main window The primary working window of the application. The Tracks area appears in the central area of the window, and it can incorporate all other working areas and editors. Also referred to simply as the main window.

loop An audio or MIDI file that contains recurring rhythmic musical elements or elements suitable for repetition. Logic Pro supports Apple Loops as well as other file formats.

Loop Browser An area shown to the right of the Tracks area when you click the Apple Loops button in the control bar. The Loop Browser is used to access and manage Apple Loops and ReCycle files.

Loop function The Loop region parameter that creates loop repeats for an audio or MIDI region. You can loop a region using the Loop pointer or by selecting the Loop checkbox in the Region inspector. The loop repetitions continue until the project end point is reached, or until another region or folder is encountered on the same track.

low cut filter A type of filter that is essentially a highpass filter with no slope or resonance controls. It attenuates all frequencies below the cutoff frequency.

lowpass filter A filter that allows frequencies below the cutoff frequency to pass unaltered, while frequencies above the cutoff are attenuated. A lowpass filter with no slope or resonance controls is known as a high cut filter.

main menu bar The menu bar at the top of the screen, offering global functions such as opening, saving, exporting, and importing projects. The Edit menu in the main menu bar includes commands that apply to the window with key focus. See also local menu bar.

marker An indicator that is tied to a specific time position in a project. For example, a marker can contain text to provide notes for different versions of a project. Markers can also be used for a number of selection and navigation tasks.

Marker List A window (or tab) in the Lists area that shows a list of all marker events. The Marker List also includes a Marker Text area where you can add text information (notes) to particular marker events.

marker text Text attached to a particular marker event, for notes or other information. You add marker text in the Marker Text window or the Marker Text area of the Marker List.

Marker track One of the global tracks, used for the creating, editing, and viewing marker events.

Marquee tool A crosshair-shaped tool used to select and edit region parts.

master channel strip A channel strip in the Mixer that acts as a separate (final) attenuator stage, changing the overall gain of all output channel strips while maintaining the level relationships between them.

Media Browser One of the browsers in the Browsers area used to find and import songs from your iTunes library and movies from your Movies folder. See also Browsers.

merge To mix or combine two or more MIDI events or regions into a single event or region.

metadata Refers to additional descriptive information that is stored in the file header of a number of file types (AAF, for example). Metadata is used to reference external media, to simplify searches, and more.

metronome A device that produces a regular, metrical tick or other sound to mark the musical beat (in bpm). Logic Pro features a metronome for practice and recording. It can be configured in the Metronome project settings.

MIDI Acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. MIDI provides a standardized hardware and software interface for electronic musical instruments, allowing devices such as synthesizers and computers to communicate with each other. It controls the pitch, length, and volume of a musical note event, among other characteristics.

MIDI channel Tracks recorded in Logic Pro can be directed to different MIDI channels, which can contain different information and play back through different sounds assigned to each channel; for example, channel 1: piano, channel 2: bass, channel 3: strings, and so on. Up to 16 separate MIDI channels can pass through a port simultaneously, if the receiving devices are capable of receiving data on more than one channel and are capable of playing back different sounds simultaneously. See also multitimbral.

MIDI Clock A short MIDI message for clock signals used to provide a timing pulse between MIDI devices. MIDI Clock is accurate to 24 ppqn (pulses per quarter note), although some devices interpolate these pulse values, resulting in a more precise clock signal if each device is capable of interpreting this additional information correctly. See also SPP.

MIDI Draw function A function that allows you to record, manually create, and edit MIDI controller data graphically. MIDI Draw data appears as a set of points, which are connected by lines. MIDI Draw can be used in the Tracks area and MIDI editors.

MIDI In button The button used to turn on Step Input mode in the editors. See alsoStep Input function.

MIDI interface A hardware component that allows you to connect MIDI controllers and other MIDI devices to your computer. See also audio interface.

MIDI Machine Control (MMC) A set of MIDI commands that Logic Pro uses to control the transport functions of any MMC-capable tape machine. The recording process can also be controlled and automated from Logic Pro via MMC.

MIDI message A message transmitted via MIDI that consists of one status byte and zero, one, two, or many data bytes (with system exclusive commands). See also event.

MIDI Multi mode A multi-timbral operating mode on a MIDI sound module where different sounds can be controlled (polyphonically) on different MIDI channels. A multi mode sound module behaves like several polyphonic sound modules. General MIDI describes a 16-part multi mode (the ability to control 16 different parts individually). Most modern sound generators support multi mode. In Logic Pro, multi mode sound modules are addressed via multi-instrument objects. This MIDI mode and multi mode sound modules are generally referred to as multi-timbral. See also multitimbral.

MIDI region A data container for MIDI events, shown in the Tracks area as a rounded rectangular area.

MIDI Thru tool A tool in the Environment used to assign an Environment object to the selected track in the Tracks area.

MIDI Time Code (MTC) Refers to the translation of a SMPTE timecode signal into a MIDI standard timecode signal. MTC is used to synchronize Logic Pro with MIDI devices, other sequencers, video and audio tape, or hard disk machines that support MIDI Time Code. MTC determines absolute time positions and supports start, stop, and continue messages.

mixdown A term commonly used to describe either the bouncing or merging of tracks. See also bounce and merge).

Mixer The area in Logic Pro that displays the audio, instrument, and MIDI channel strips in a project. These channel strips allow you to control all aspects of track output and processing, including level, panning, plug-in processing, routing, and more.

mix, mixing The process of shaping the overall sound of a project by adjusting the volume levels, pan positions, adding EQ and other effects, and using automation to dynamically alter these and other aspects.

M-LAN A Yamaha-designed variant of the FireWire interface. M-LAN enables Yamaha digital mixers and other devices to be directly connected to a Macintosh FireWire port. See alsoFireWire.

modulation A slight, continuously varying change. Many Logic Pro effects and synthesizers contain modulators.

modulation amount The strength, or intensity, of modulation.

modulation matrix The EXS24 mkII (and some other Logic Pro instruments) contains a grid that allows you to vary a number of target parameters, such as pitch, with a number of modulation sources (modulators). This grid is referred to as the modulation matrix in the EXS24 mkII.

modulation routing The path that determines which target parameter will be affected by a specific modulator (modulation source).

modulation wheel A MIDI controller found on most MIDI keyboards.

mono Short for monophonic sound reproduction. The process of mixing audio channels into a single track, using equal amounts of the left and right audio channel signals. Compare stereo.

Movie track A global track that allows you to view movie clips within a project.

MP3 Abbreviation for MPEG-2 Audio Layer 3. A compressed audio file format, frequently used to distribute audio files over the Internet.

multi-instrument object An object in the Logic Pro Environment that represents a multi-timbral hardware or software device that reacts to MIDI. The multi-instrument object is essentially 16 instrument objects in a single package. Each instrument, called a subchannel, has a fixed MIDI channel, while all share the same MIDI port. Other parameters can be set individually. The multi-instrument object allows you to address multichannel MIDI devices, which can receive MIDI data (and play different sounds) on separate MIDI channels.

multi-timbralA term that describes an instrument or other device that can play several different sounds at the same time, using multiple MIDI channels. See also MIDI Multi mode.

Multi Trigger mode A mode associated with synthesizers such as the ES1. In this mode, a synthesizer envelope is usually retriggered by each incoming note event.

Musical Typing keyboardAn onscreen keyboard that allows you to use the computer keyboard as a real-time MIDI keyboard, so that you can record MIDI when no music keyboard is connected.

mute To turn off (silence) the audio output of a channel or track. You can mute a track or channel by clicking the Mute button in the track header or at the bottom of the channel strip.

Mute tool A tool used to silence individual regions or events.

native 1) The host-based processing of effects and software instruments in Logic Pro. The computer processor natively calculates the effects and instruments. 2) The internal Logic Pro plug-in format, as opposed to the Audio Units format. Logic Pro native plug-ins only work in Logic Pro.

normal window See window type.

normalize To raise the volume of a recorded audio file to the maximum digital level, without altering the dynamic content. For MIDI regions, normalizing applies the current parameter settings to the selected MIDI events (by altering the actual events themselves), and clears existing parameter settings.

notch filter A filter that cuts the frequency band near the cutoff frequency, allowing all other frequencies (both below and above) to pass.

note attributes Functions found in the Attributes menu of the Score Editor that determine the stem direction, color, enharmonic symbols, and additional aspects for the display (and printing) of note events.

note number The pitch of a MIDI note, controlled by the first data byte of a MIDI note event.

object A term that refers to the graphical representation of elements in the Logic Pro Environment. Objects can be used to both create and process MIDI data in real time, and to create processing machines, such as virtual rhythm generators or step sequencers. Examples of Environment objects include instruments, multi-instruments, faders, and arpeggiators. The Environment Mixer layer contains objects that process audio data.

offset 1) Refers to a situation where the playback point in a source audio file differs from the start point (anchor) of the file. Also known as start point offset. 2) In conjunction with video timecode, when the start time of the Logic Pro project and QuickTime movie file are offset (different) from each other. 3) The situation when the amplitude of a waveform is off-axis from the center line (due to a recording error caused by hardware). This can be rectified with the DC Offset function in the Audio File Editor. See also DC Offset.

oscillator The part of a synthesizer (often the first stage) that generates the basic sound, using a selection of waveforms containing different amounts of harmonics, that is then modified using other synthesizer controls.

output channel strip A channel strip in the Mixer that controls the output level and pan/balance for each physical output of your audio interface.

Page view A view in the Score Editor that displays music notation as it will appear on facing, printed pages.

pan, pan position Describes the placement of mono audio signals in the stereo field, by setting different levels on both sides..

Pan control A rotary knob (directly above the Volume fader) on mono channel strips, used to determine the position of the signal in the stereo image.

patch An element that contains the instrument, effects, and routing settings that control the sound of a track. When you choose a patch in the Library, those settings are applied to the currently selected track.

peak 1) The highest level in an audio signal. 2) Portions of a digital audio signal that exceed 0 dB, resulting in clipping. You can use the level meters on each channel strip to locate peaks and remove or avoid clipping. The Search Peak command in the Audio File Editor Functions menu searches for the sample bit with the greatest amplitude value.

peak level display A digital audio meter that displays the absolute volume of an audio signal as it plays, making it easier to accurately view every peak in the signal.

Pencil tool A tool used to create empty MIDI regions in the Tracks area. You can also use the Pencil tool to add audio regions to the Tracks area, when used in conjunction with the Shift key. In the Audio File Editor, the Pencil can be used to draw out transient signal spikes (pops and clicks) in signals.

Piano Roll Editor A MIDI track editor in Logic Pro that displays note events in MIDI regions as horizontal beams. Events can be cut, copied, moved, resized, and edited in other ways.

pink noise A type of harmonic noise that contains more energy in the lower-frequency range.

pitch The perceived highness (treble) or lowness (bass) of a musical sound. Pitch corresponds to the frequency of the sound wave. See also frequency.

pitch bend message A MIDI message transmitted by the pitch bend wheel of a MIDI keyboard.

playback Refers to playing a project, an individual region, or an audio file, so that you can hear it.

playhead A vertical white line that indicates the current playback position in the Tracks area and in time-based editors (such as the Piano Roll Editor and Audio Track Editor). You can drag the playhead to change the playback position. See also scrubbing.

plug-in A software application that enhances the functionality of Logic Pro. Plug-ins are typically software instruments or effects that can be used on Logic Pro tracks.

plug-in window A window where you can interact with the plug-in parameters. You open a plug-in window by double-clicking the Effect slot containing the plug-in.

Pointer tool A tool used to select or edit regions, events, menu or interface items, and more in Logic Pro.

post fader A send in an analog mixer that is positioned after the Volume fader in the signal flow, so that the level of signals going to the send changes with the fader movements.

pre fader A send in an analog mixer that is positioned before the Volume fader in the signal flow, so the level of a signal routed pre-fader to a send remains constant, regardless of any fader movements.

preset A set of plug-in parameter values that can be loaded, saved, copied, or pasted via the Library or the Settings pop-up menu in the plug-in window header. See also setting and Settings pop-up menu.

pressure See aftertouch.

project A Logic document. It contains all MIDI regions and references to the audio files to be played back. A project file can be saved within a project folder, which can contain the project’s audio files and other assets (such as movie, sample files, and so on). Saving a project with assets simplifies archiving and exchanging projects, but increases the project’s size.

Project Audio Browser One of the browsers in the Browsers area used for managing project audio files and regions and conversion tasks. See also Browsers.

project folder A folder that can contains a Logic Proproject as well as all media files used by the project, which can include audio files, sampler instruments and samples, a movie, and other files.

project settings A collection of program settings that are specific to the current project. These are different from the global preferences that affect all Logic Pro projects. .

protected track A track that can’t have its contents moved or changed.

punch in, punch out Describes going into and out of record mode while a project is playing, to replace a section of an existing recording. This process can be automated in Logic Pro. See also Autopunch function.

PWM Abbreviation for Pulse Width Modulation. Synthesizers often feature this facility, where a square waveform is deformed by adjusting its pulse width. A square waveform usually sounds hollow and woody, whereas a pulse width modulated square wave sounds more reedy and nasal.

Q factor A term associated with equalizers. Q factor is the quality factor of the equalization, and is used to select a narrower or broader frequency range within the overall sonic spectrum of the incoming signal.

quantization The process of time-correcting note start positions by moving them to the nearest point on a time grid. When quantization is applied to any selected event or region, Logic Pro moves all note events to align perfectly with the nearest grid position. Logic Pro quantization is nondestructive, allowing you to try out different quantize values without losing the original timing.

Quantize button The button (labeled with a Q) that you click to quantize selected events. See also Quantize tool and quantization.

Quantize pop-up menu The Logic Promenu from which you choose the quantize value. See also Quantize tool and quantization.

Quantize tool A tool used to quantize specific selected events, using the quantize value specified in the Quantize pop-up menu.

Quick Help An area at the top of the inspector that shows a brief description of whatever part of the Logic Pro interface you move the pointer over. Quick Help can also be opened as a floating window. Some Quick Help descriptions contain links to more detailed information.

Quick Swipe Comping mode A mode available in a selected take folder. When Quick Swipe Comping mode is turned on, you can create and edit comps. When you turn it off, you can cut, drag, and move take folder and take region elements in the selected take folder.

QuickTime An Apple cross-platform standard for digitized, data-compressed movie playback and encoding. QuickTime movies can be shown in a Logic Pro window or on the global Movie track, in sync with the project. When you move the playhead, the movie follows, and vice versa.

real-time effects Effects that can be applied to regions in real time during playback.

record-enable Audio tracks must be manually armed (record enabled) before you can record on them. MIDI and software instrument tracks are automatically record enabled when selected.

record, recording 1) The act of capturing a performance as audio or MIDI data. 2) A term that refers to the actual data in Logic Pro. Recordings are typically referred to using the words region or file to make things clearer.

ReCycle An application from software manufacturer Propellerhead, which mainly serves as an editing and production tool for loops. ReCycle uses specific file formats (.rex) which can be imported by Logic Pro.

region A rectangular segment in the Tracks area that represents the recordings and added media files in a project, and acts as a container for audio or MIDI data. There are four different types of regions—audio regions, MIDI regions, Drummer regions, and folder regions (usually referred to as folders)—each represented by a different color. See also audio region, MIDI region, Drummer region, and folder.

Region inspector A Logic Pro inspector used to nondestructively set the playback parameters—including quantization, transposition, velocity, compression, and delay—for individual regions. These parameters affect how the events are played back, but don’t alter the stored data.

release An envelope parameter that determines the time it takes for a signal to fall from the sustain level to an amplitude of zero when the key is released. See also envelope.

Replace mode A type of overwrite recording mode where the existing audio regions in a section of the Tracks area are replaced by a new recording. To turn on Replace mode, click the Replace button in the control bar.

Resize tool A tool in the Score Editor used to change the size of a note or other symbol.

resonance A term generally associated with filters, particularly synthesizers. Resonance emphasizes the frequency range surrounding the cutoff frequency. See also cutoff frequency.

reverb Short for reverberation. Reverb emulates the sound of a physical space, or, more specifically, the reflections of sound waves within a space. For example, a handclap in a large cathedral reverberates for a long time as sound waves bounce off the stone surfaces, while a handclap in a small broom closet hardly reverberates at all. The difference in size, and in the materials of the wall surfaces, accounts for the difference in the amount and quality of reverberation. Logic Pro features a variety of reverb effects that you can use to create a sense of space or ambience for your recordings.

ReWire An audio streaming and synchronization technology from Propellerhead software. The output of ReWire applications can be routed into (and processed with) the Logic ProMixer. Logic Pro can also control the transport operations of ReWire programs, and Logic Pro instrument tracks can drive the software instruments of ReWire applications.

ritardando A gradual slowdown of tempo. See also tempo.

routing Generally refers to the way audio is sent through channels or other processing units. Routing is also used to describe specific input and output assignments.

ruler A tool located at the top of the main window, Piano Roll Editor, Step Editor, and Score Editor. The ruler displays the units of musical time, including bars, measures, beats, and beat divisions. It is used to set and display the project position, the cycle area, and punch locators. See also Autopunch function and playhead.

sample 1) A term for digital data that represents a sound at a particular instance in time. 2) The process of capturing sound digitally.

sample rate The number of times per second that audio is sampled when an audio signal is captured digitally. Logic Pro can record and edit audio at sample rates ranging from 44.1 kHz (44,100 times per second) up to 192 kHz (192,000 times per second).

sample rate converter A device or algorithm that translates one sample rate to another.

sampler A device used for sampling. In Logic Pro, this generally refers to the EXS24 mkII software-based sampler.

sampling The process of converting analog audio into digital data. The sample rate of an audio stream specifies the number of samples that are captured per second. Higher sample rates yield higher-quality audio. See also sample rate.

saturation A term commonly associated with a slight tape distortion or the characteristics of tube amplifiers. It describes a very high gain level that causes a slight distortion of the incoming signal, resulting in a warm, rounded sound.

scale A group of related musical notes (or pitches) that forms the basis of the melody and harmony in a piece of music. The most common scales are the major scale and minor scale. When you create a project, you can choose the scale (and key) for the project.

scan code Each key on a computer keyboard has a scan code rather than an ASCII symbol associated with it. For example, the Plus and Minus keys on the numeric keypad and the corresponding keys above the keyboard have a different scan code, but use the same ASCII symbol.

scene markerLogic Pro can automatically extract information from (abrupt) transitions in QuickTime movie files, and create a marker, making the process of scoring to film much faster and easier. Such transitions in a movie generally indicate a scene change.

Scissors tool A tool used for splitting regions or events.

Score Editor An editor in Logic Prothat displays MIDI regions as standard musical notation. MIDI note events are represented as musical notes, and the spaces between them as rests. Many other musical symbols such as clefs, key and time signatures, accents, and articulations, can also be displayed. The Score Editor allows you to adjust and edit the layout of the score, and print it.

score set A saved collection of multiple staff styles, staffs, and other elements shown in the Score Editor. You can use score sets to quickly switch between (and edit and print) different portions of the score—such as a brass section—separately from the entire score. It also simplifies experimentation with different layouts.

screen control Each Smart Control has a set of screen controls. Adjusting a screen control can change one or more parameters of the track’s channel strip, instrument, and effect plug-ins. Screen controls are labeled to help you understand which aspect of the sound each one affects. See also Smart Control.

screenset A layout of various windows, including all display parameters (zoom, position, size, and so on). You can save, recall, and switch between different screensets, much as you might swap between different computer monitors.

SDII Short for Sound Designer II. An audio file format very similar in structure to the AIFF file format.

self-oscillation A typical characteristic of analog filter circuits that occurs when the filter, at high resonance values, feeds back into itself and begins to oscillate at its natural frequency.

semitone The smallest interval between two pitches in the standard diatonic scale. A semitone is also called a half step or half tone.

send Short for aux send. An output on an audio device used for routing a controlled amount of the signal to another device. Sends are often used to send several signals to the same effect, letting you use computationally intensive effects such as reverb more efficiently.

Send slot A panel on mixer channel strips used to send (via a bus) some or all of the audio signal to an aux channel strip. You can use multiple sends on channels.

sequencer A computer application used to record both audio and MIDI data and blend the sounds together in a software mixing console. Early sequencers controlled synthesizers via a series of control voltages and gates, or via MIDI only. No audio recording or control was available. See also DAW.

setting 1) A parameter value. 2) A set of plug-in parameter values that can be loaded, saved, copied, or pasted via the Settings pop-up menu. A plug-in setting is also known as a preset. See also preset, Setting button, and Settings pop-up menu.

Setting button A panel on mixer channel strips used to load, copy, and save channel strip settings. These settings contain setup information for a channel strip, including plug-ins.

Settings pop-up menu The menu in the gray header at the top of all plug-in windows used to save, load, copy, and paste settings (the parameter values of effects and software instruments).

sharing Refers to the process of distributing your projects. Logic Pro provides several options: the Media Browser, iTunes, SoundCloud, XML, MusicXML, and others.

shelving EQ A type of EQ that allows the frequency range above or below the specified frequency to be increased or decreased.

side chain An alternative input signal—usually routed into an effect—used to control an effect parameter. For example, you could use a side-chained track containing a drum loop to act as the control signal for a gate inserted on a sustained pad track, creating a rhythmic gating effect of the pad sound.

Signature List A window (or tab) that lists all time and key signatures of a project.

Signature track A global track that shows all time and key signatures of a project.

Single Trigger mode A term associated with synthesizers such as the ES1. In this mode, envelopes are not retriggered when tied (legato) notes are played.

Smart Control Smart Controls let you control the sound of the selected track using a set of onscreen controls. Smart Controls can control both channel strip and plug-in parameters, including software instruments and effects. See also screen control.

SMPTE Abbreviation for Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. The organization responsible for establishing a synchronization system that divides time into hours, minutes, seconds, frames, and subframes (SMPTE timecode). SMPTE timecode is also used for synchronizing different devices. The MIDI equivalent of SMPTE timecode is MIDI Time Code (MTC). See also MTC.

SMPTE Time ruler Refers to the Logic Pro ruler when set to display time in SMPTE format. The SMPTE Time ruler can display timecode if a movie is imported into a project.

Snap pop-up menu A pop-up menu found in the local menu bar of linear editing windows that determines the behavior of regions or events when edited. Lengths and cuts will snap to the nearest possible position as determined by the value chosen in the Snap pop-up menu.

software instrument A virtual instrument for which the sound is calculated by the computer processor, and played via the audio interface outputs. Often colloquially called softsynths or softsamplers. Logic Pro includes a large collection of native software instruments to use in your projects.

software instrument channel stripLogic Pro supports the use of software-based instruments. Software instrument plug-ins are inserted into the Instrument slot of instrument channel strips. Software instrument recording takes place on instrument tracks in the Tracks area. Playback of these tracks is routed via the instrument channel strip in the Mixer.

solo To temporarily isolate one or more tracks, regions, or events, allowing them to be heard without the rest of the project.

Solo tool A tool used to play a region or event in isolation.

S/P-DIF Short for Sony/Philips Digital Interface. A standard transmission format for professional stereo digital audio signals. The format is similar to AES/EBU, but uses 75 ohm coaxial or optical connectors and cabling. Depending on the type of devices involved, AES/EBU and S/P-DIF coaxial interfaces can communicate directly. Most digital audio interfaces available today will feature S/P-DIF connectors.

split channel audio files Often the channels of multichannel audio files (stereo or surround) are interleaved, so that edits to one channel affect the others equally. Logic Pro allows you to separate these files into split channel audio files, so that you can edit each channel independently. See also interleaved audio file.

SPP Abbreviation for Song Position Pointer. A MIDI Clock timing pulse sub-message that indicates the current “song” (project) position. It is accurate to bars (and beats for some devices), but is not as accurate as MIDI Time Code (MTC), which is preferred when you have a choice when synchronizing Logic Pro. See also MIDI Clock and MTC.

staff style Determines the appearance of notation on a musical staff. You can define note sizing and spacing, number of staff lines, fonts, and more for each staff style.

Standard MIDI file (SMF) The standard file format for exchanging songs between different sequencers or MIDI file players. Standard MIDI files are not specific to a particular sequencer program, type of computer, or device. Any sequencer should be able to interpret at least the type 0 MIDI file format. Standard MIDI files contain information about MIDI events, including time positions and channel assignments, names of individual tracks, instrument names, controller data, and tempo changes.

status byte The first byte in a MIDI message, which determines the type of message.

step A beam in the Step Editor that represents a MIDI event. The value of the event is denoted by the beam height, providing an at-a-glance view of one, or dozens, of different events and their values.

Step Editor A graphical editor in Logic Pro that can be used to create and edit MIDI note and controller data. The Step Editor is ideal for drawing drum parts and creating crescendi, among other tasks. See also event definition.

Step Input function A feature that allows you to insert MIDI notes into a MIDI region, one at a time, when real-time recording is not active. This technique allows you to input notes accurately, even when they may be too fast for you to play “live.” Step input can be performed onscreen with the mouse or with the computer or MIDI keyboard, or any combination of these devices. See also MIDI In button.

step sequencer While all sequencers, including Logic Pro, step through a series of events, this term is used to describe a device from the early years of analog synthesizers. Essentially, two rows of knobs (usually eight) were individually adjusted to control the gate time (note length) and pitch of a connected synthesizer. The sequencer would step through these knob settings once, or repeatedly. Many modern software instruments, particularly drum synthesizers, include an integrated step sequencer that synchronizes with project playback. Ultrabeat incorporates a step sequencer that is considerably more flexible than its ancient analog cousins.

stereo Short for stereophonic. Refers to the sound reproduction of two different audio channels. Compare mono.

subframe A subdivision of a SMPTE frame, corresponding to its individual bits. One frame consists of 80 bits.

summing stack A type of Track Stack that lets you combine multiple tracks and route their output to an audio subgroup. When you create a summing stack, the outputs from the subtracks are routed to a bus, the destination aux of which is assigned to the main track. When the main track is selected, you can mute, solo, and adjust volume and send levels for the summing stack, and add and edit plug-ins, affecting the sound of all the subtracks in the summing stack. See alsoTrack Stack.

surround Describes playback systems that make use of multiple speakers. The most common surround format is 5.1 channels (front left, front center, front right, left surround, right surround, and an LFE, or subwoofer, channel), typically used in home theater systems and in cinemas. Logic Pro supports all common surround formats, and provides surround recording, plug-in, and mixing facilities.

Surround Panner control Replaces the standard Pan/Balance knob of channel strips for surround projects. The Surround Panner control allows you to control the relative positioning of the channel signal between the available speakers (in the chosen project surround format).

sustain An envelope parameter that sets the steady amplitude level produced when a key is held down. See also envelope.

sustain pedal A momentary footswitch connected to a MIDI keyboard. The sustain pedal transmits MIDI controller number 64, which is recorded and played back by Logic Pro, and which can be edited as an automation parameter.

Swing parameter A parameter that alters the rigid timing of a quantization grid by delaying every other note of a specified subdivision by a definable amount.

Sync button A button in the control bar used to turn external synchronization mode on and off.

synchronization Refers to the method of keeping several recording or playback devices time-locked with one another. In virtually all synchronized setups, there is one master device and one or more slave devices that derive their synchronization clock from the master.

synchronizer The central unit used to control the synchronization of several devices. In most situations, Logic Pro will act as the master synchronizer.

synthesizer A hardware or software device that can generate sounds. The word is derived from early attempts with mechanical and electronic machines to emulate (or synthesize) the sounds of musical instruments, voices, birdsong, and so on. Logic Pro features several software synthesizers, including the ES1, ES2, EFM1, ES E, ES P, and ES M.

SysEx Abbreviation for System Exclusive data. SysEx data forms the top tier in the hierarchy of MIDI commands. These messages are tagged with an identification number for each manufacturer (the SysEx manufacturer ID number). The actual content of these MIDI commands is left to the manufacturer. SysEx data is often used to transfer sound programs or system settings, or to address individual sound generation or signal-processing parameters.

take folder A container for multiple take recordings.

take A term used to describe a recording. Logic Pro allows you to create several takes, one after the other, without leaving record mode. These takes can then be compiled into a composite take, or comp. See also comping.

template A project that contains a defined collection of settings and preferences. Templates serve as a starting point for new projects (scoring tasks, audio-only projects, MIDI-only projects, and so on). Any project can be used as a template, and you can create and save multiple templates.

tempo The playback speed of a piece of music, measured in beats per minute. Logic Pro allows you to create and edit tempo changes in the Tempo track.

tempo change An event inserted into the Tempo track (as a tempo point) that indicates a change in tempo at a particular bar/beat position.

Tempo track One of the Logic Proglobal tracks. A Tempo track displays tempo changes as nodes.

Text tool A tool used for editing the name of items. In the Score Editor, you can use the Text tool to add text.

tick The smallest unit of timing resolution in a MIDI sequencer. In Logic Pro, this equals 1/3840 of a note. Logic Pro allows edits at single sample accuracy (at sufficient zoom levels) for edits and positioning, which exceeds what the MIDI protocol is fast enough to support for playback.

timecode A format for assigning a unique, sequential time unit to each frame of video (or project) position. The SMPTE timecode format is measured in hours, minutes, seconds, frames, and subframes.

timing A measure of the ability to play notes in time (in keeping with the tempo). Timing can also refer to synchronization between events, regions, and devices.

Tool menu A menu in a local menu bar that contains the tools for editing, zooming, cropping, and otherwise manipulating items in that specific window.

toolbar A collection of buttons and other controls used for working with regions in the Tracks area. By default the toolbar is hidden, but you can make it visible by clicking the Toolbar button in the control bar. You can customize the toolbar to meet your individual needs.

track A horizontal row in the Tracks area that contains either audio or MIDI regions that can be played back over time. Each track has a specified channel strip that data is routed to. A Logic Pro project can contain hundreds of tracks.

track arming See record-enable.

Track inspector A Logic Pro inspector used to nondestructively set the playback parameters for each track, including channel and MIDI channel, Freeze mode, transposition, and velocity. These parameters do not alter the regions on the track.

Track Protect button A button in the track header that protects or unprotects tracks from further editing. See also protected track.

Track Stack Track Stacks provide a convenient way to organize and control tracks, to manage projects with high track counts, and to create and manage audio subgroups. There are two types of Track Stacks: folder stacks and summing stacks. Both types have a main track and one or more subtracks. See also folder stack and summing stack.

Tracks area The primary working space of Logic Pro. The Tracks area is used to record, edit, and arrange the audio, MIDI, and Drummer regions in a project. It is also used for recording and playback of automation.

transform set A collection of saved transform operations. Transform sets can be quickly accessed via the Presets menu in the Transform window. You can also import transform sets from other projects. See also Transform window.

Transform window An editor used to define a set of conditions and operations for selecting and manipulating specific MIDI events.

transient The position in an audio recording where the signal becomes a lot louder over a short time span (a signal spike, in other words). Because this behavior is typical for drum recordings, transients can be used to indicate where beats occur in an audio signal.

transient detection A process in which audio files are analyzed for transients the first time you enable a track for flex editing. See also flex editing.

transient marker A marker that denotes a significant point or peak in an audio file.

transport controls A set of buttons and other controls located in the center of the control bar, used to control recording and playback functions. The transport controls include the Record, Pause, Play, Stop, and Rewind/Forward buttons and other functions. You can also open a floating Transport window.

transposition The process of changing the pitch of a project, a region, or individual notes or chords by a number of semitones.

Transposition track One of the Logic Proglobal tracks. A transposition track allows you to transpose parts of a project and view transposition events.

treble A term that refers to high-frequency sounds or components within a sound. See also frequency.

unicode Fundamentally, computers deal only with numbers. They store letters and other characters by assigning a number for each one. Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, program, or language.

varispeed A way of speeding up or slowing down the entire project, similar to the original varispeed feature of tape machines. You can change both pitch and speed, or only speed (while pitch remains constant).

velocity Refers to the force with which a MIDI note is struck. Velocity is controlled by the second data byte of a note event.

Velocity tool A tool in the MIDI editors used to adjust the velocity of individual, or grouped, note events.

Vibrato tool A tool in the Audio Track Editor used to adjust the amount of vibrato on notes in Flex Pitch mode.

Voice Separation tool A tool in the Score Editor used to separate polyphonic voices onto different staffs by drawing a dividing line (if you’re using a polyphonic staff style).

Volume tool A tool in the Audio Track Editor used to adjust the amount of gain applied to notes in Flex Pitch mode.

VU meter Abbreviation for Volume Unit meter. An analog meter used to monitor audio levels, typically with a circular face and a moving needle.

WAV, WAVE The primary audio file format used by Windows-compatible computers. In Logic Pro, all recorded and bounced WAV files are in Broadcast Wave format, which includes high-resolution timestamp information that stores positional information. This makes it easy to align these files in other audio and video applications.

waveform A visual representation of an audio signal. Waveform graphics run from left to right, and are centered on a horizontal line. Louder portions of the waveform (amplitude peaks) are indicated as taller peaks or curves in the waveform.

wet/dry mix Refers to the ratio of a signal that effects have been added to (wet), and the original, unprocessed signal (dry).

white noise A type of noise in which all frequencies in a given frequency band sound simultaneously, at the same intensity. Its name is analogous to white light, which consists of a mixture of all optical wavelengths (all rainbow colors). Sonically, white noise falls between the sound of the consonant F and breaking waves (surf). Synthesis of wind and seashore noises, or electronic snare drum sounds, typically makes use of white noise.

Word Clock The clock signal required by digital audio interfaces to ensure that the sampling rates of connected devices run synchronously. When two devices are connected via a standard digital audio interface (such as S/P-DIF or ADAT optical), Word Clock is transmitted via the audio circuit. If you want more than two digital audio devices to communicate with each other, you need to use separate Word Clock ports for synchronization, in most cases.

Wrapped view A view in the Score Editor that displays the selected track or tracks in a line-wrapped, lead sheet–style view.

zero crossing A point in an audio file where the waveform crosses the zero amplitude axis. If you cut an audio file at a zero crossing, there will be no click at the cut point.

zoom control The control that appears at the bottom-right corner the Tracks area and some other windows. The zoom control slider allows you to navigate through the entire length of the currently displayed project. The lines on the left and right of the slider can be clicked to zoom in and out by a fixed percentage.

Zoom tool A tool used to zoom in on any part of the active area. The Zoom tool can also be accessed using Control-Option. Click the background with the tool to revert to the normal zoom level.